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Efforts made in past year towards a climate deal


11-30-2015 14:30 BJT

Full coverage: Xi Attends Paris Climate Talks, Visits Zimbabwe, S. Africa

Now let's take a closer look at this year's United Nations Climate Change Conference, which is also known as COP 21 or CMP 11, and the efforts taken towards clinching a universal climate action deal.

It is the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

And also the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

So it's also known as COP 21 or CMP 11.

Its objective is to achieve, for the first time in over 20 years of UN negotiations, a binding and universal climate deal, from all the nations of the world.

The ultimate goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit the global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

At last year’s conference in Lima, Peru, international negotiators agreed on a plan which would for the first time commit all countries to cutting their greenhouse gas emissions. The plan was hailed as an important first step towards this deal, due to be finalized at this Paris conference and come into force in 2020.

Since then, more efforts have been made across the world, to pave the way.

In Geneva of Switzerland in February, negotiators from almost 200 countries adopted an 86-page draft as the basis for a Paris deal.

In June, negotiators met in Bonn of Germany. They streamlined the draft and narrowed differences with options reflecting their different views, and reached a negotiating text.

Then in July, some 800 representatives of local authorities, civil societies and non-governmental organizations from over 80 countries gathered in Lyon of France. They stressed public policies and non-State actors' role in the fight.

And the last round of talks before the Paris conference was held in Bonn in October. Negotiators concluded their work with a 55-page draft text. The text is more balanced, as missing positions, especially those of developing countries, were reinserted.

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