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京剧 Beijing Opera

05-20-2010 13:16 BJT

京剧在中国是最受欢迎的戏曲种类之一。
Beijing opera is one of the most popular operas in China.

它将歌唱、音乐、舞蹈、杂技和表演融为一体。
It’s a combination of singing, music, dancing and acrobatic and acting.

京剧中演员的表演和舞台背景设计多采用象征手法。
The performance of the actors and setting on the stage are mainly symbolic.

比如,演员手里挥舞马鞭就代表马在飞奔,而几个演员站成一排就代表了整个军队。
You don’t see a horse on the stage but a whip in the hand of the actor and several actors stand in a line representing a whole army.

京剧中主要有四种类型的角色:“生、旦、净、丑”。
And there are four main kinds of characters: “Sheng, Dan, Jing, Chou”.

“生”是男性角色;
“Sheng” is the male lead;

旦”是女性角色;
“Dan” is the female lead;

“净”也称“花脸”,通常是英雄、将军,或者天神、恶魔,这种个性鲜明的角色;
“Jing” is the painted face, most of time they are heroes, generals or deities or demons, characters with strong characters;

“丑”就是小丑,代表滑稽或反面的角色。
“Chou” is the clown or the comedy role, representing somebody who is humorous or evil.

面部化妆和戏服的颜色也有特定的含义。
And the color of facial makeup and costumes also gives meanings.

面部化妆的不同色彩,代表不同的人物性格,比如,红脸代表忠诚,白脸代表阴险和狡诈,黑脸代表诚实和鲁莽。
For instance, take the color of makeup for example, red normally represents loyalty; white, a foxing evil; black, honest but blunt.

戏服的颜色可以代表地位,红色代表高级官员,蓝色代表级别稍低的官员,黑色可以用于任何角色。
And the color of the costume: red is high rank official; blue, low rank official; black could be used in the costume of any characters.

除了独特的面部化妆和戏服之外,京剧还有四种表演手法:“唱、念、做、打”,即歌唱、对白、表演和杂技。
Apart from the distinct facial make up and costumes, Beijing opera have four areas of performance: “Chang, Nian, Zuo, Da”. Singing, dialogue, acting and acrobatic combined.

这些表演都要按照特定的节奏和次序进行。
All of these are performed rhythmical measured and orderly.

京剧中伴奏乐队的乐器可以分成两类:“武场”和“文场”。
In the accompany band the musical instruments fall into two categories: “Wu Chang” and “Wen Chang”.

“武场”以打击乐器为主,而“文场”主要是弦乐器。
“Wu Chang” is percussion instruments while “Wen Chang” is string instruments.

现在我们来看看,“文场”的四件主要乐器。
Here we are working at the four major instruments of the “Wen Chang”.

“文场”主要体现优美的舞蹈和动听的唱腔。
“Wen Cheng” is famous for the dancing and singing rather than fighting.

首先来看看“三弦”,它因为有三根弦而得名;这件叫“月琴”,这是一种木制乐器,形状像是一个圆月。
So the first one is called “San Xian” you get three strings over there, and this is called "Yue Qin", literally it’s a moon instrument, wooden instrument looks likes a full moon.

这件叫“京二胡”,这件叫“京胡”。
And this piece is called “Jing Er Hu”, and this is called “Jing Hu”.

这四件乐器是京剧里的四种主要乐器,在听京剧时,你能听到它们发出的各种乐音.
And these four instruments are the major four instruments in Beijing opera, so when you’re listening to the Beijing opera, you will hear all the sounds they make.

这些是“武场”用的乐器.
And these are the instruments for “Wu Chang”.

这个叫“堂鼓”, 鼓的一种.
And this is called “Tang Gu”, a drum.

这个叫“单皮鼓”。
And this is “Dan Pi Gu”.

实际上这位先生就像是乐队的指挥,负责控制音乐的节奏和各种乐器的配合。
Actually, this gentlemen is like a conductor of an orchestra, so he is in charge of the rhythm, of the music, of the combination of the music.

这个叫“大锣”,是锣的一种。
And this is “Da Luo”, it is a big gong.

这个是“铙钹”,那个是“小锣”。
And this is “Nao Bo”, cymbals, and that is “Xiao Luo”.

这些武场里的乐器,在京剧中也起着很重要的作用。
So these are the instruments for “Wu Chang”, which are also very important in Beijing opera.

乐队的伴奏同演员的表演互相配合渲染出了整个演出的气氛。
The accompaniment of music builds up the atmosphere of the whole story as well as goes with the performance of the actors.

音乐的伴奏甚至细致到了能跟得上演员眼珠的转动、眨眼以及手指的颤抖,当然还有角色所表达的感情。
So delicately that it can go with the sudden movement of the eyes, the blinks and even the trembling of the hands as well as, of course the emotional expression of the characters.

总之,京剧是中国传统的一门综合性的表演艺术。
Beijing opera is an integrated performing art on the Chinese stage.

京剧
Beijing Opera


sing


clown

 

 

Editor:Shi Taoyang |Source: CCTV.com

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