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During its aggressive war against China from 1931 to 1945, Japanese troops killed and injured 35 million civilians, seized control of the country's economy, and caused tremendous cultural damage.
To commemorate the 65th anniversary of the victory over the Japanese invaders, Cui Lingnan looks back at the toll it took, and the trauma that still lingers.
The 14-year war is considered one of the heinous crimes in human history conducted by the Japanese militarists.
Japan's air force bombarded about 900 cities, and a countless number of villages. Invading troops also initiated a gruesome massacre in the east China metropolis of Nanjing in November 1937. Three hundred-thousand citizens, mostly civilians, were killed by guns, fires, and even live burials.
Massacre Survivor, Nanjing, said, "When the Japanese troops came, in no more than two hours, seven people in my family were killed. When they dragged my sister out, she was yelling, and I was yelling too. They stabbed me three times. Here, here, and there (pointing to the three stabs). Then I passed out."
In northeast China, Japanese invaders conducted anatomical experiments, and tested biological weapons, on live people. Civilians were killed by chemical warfare in several other cities.
In Noetheast China and on Taiwan Island, the invaders declared Japanese the official language teaching their tongue to younger generations, while compelling them to discriminate against their own compatriots.
Li Zhongyuan, Deputy Curator, Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War Memorial Hall, said, "The Japanese invaders tortured Chinese civilians not only physically, but also mentally. They extracted financial benefits by enslaving us. They were using our resources to wage war against us."
During the war, the Japanese army forced 200-thousand women to serve as prostitutes. The invaders seized control over pillar industries, mines, transport, agriculture, finance, and trade in the regions they occupied regions, causing at least 600-billion US dollars in losses to the Chinese people.