Qingdao is a picturesque coastal city that lies on the southern tip of China's Shandong Peninsula, located in JiaoZhou Bay facing the Yellow Sea. Qingdao, with an annual average temperature of 12.2°C, is also a well-known holiday resort in China. Qingdao has seven urban districts and five county level cities under its jurisdiction with 10,645 square kilometers of land and a population of more than 8.1 million.
Before troops were garrisoned here by the imperial court of Qing in 1891, Qingdao had been a small fishing village. It became a German concession in 1897 and was occupied by invading Japanese soldiers when the First World War broke out in 1914. The famous May 4th Movement was launched in 1919 and protesters, against the then Chinese government yielding to Japanese pressure, demanded the recommencement of sovereignty over Qingdao.